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The main goal of this project is to control the traffic density at the junction by IR sensor that detects the traffic density at the junction and changes the signal timings automatically by IR interruption method.
Conventional traffic light system is based on fixed-time concept allotted to each side of the junction, which cannot be varied as per varying-traffic density. Junction timings allotted are fixed. Sometimes higher-traffic density at one side of the junction demands longer green time as compared to the standard allotted time. The proposed system using a microcontroller of the 8051 family duly interfaced with sensors changes the junction timing automatically to accommodate movement of vehicles smoothly avoiding unnecessary waiting time at the junction. The sensors used in this project are IR and photodiodes which are in line of sight configuration across the road to detect the density at the traffic signal while interrupted. The density of the vehicles is measured in three zones: low, medium, high based on which timings are allotted accordingly.
Furthermore, in future the project can be enhanced by synchronizing all the traffic junctions in the city by establishing a network among them. The network can be wired or wireless. This synchronization will greatly help in reducing traffic congestion.